The Everwind Times

Newspaper of the Verges

Overball Rules

This page contains the official rules as sanctioned by the International Overball League. The rules listed below are for reference, and are kept up to date. Use them. These official rules are now available for PDF download (free), and will soon be available in print.

Section 1: Structure

The term “League” is defined as “a grouping of teams into a league for scheduling purposes.”
A League consists of a minimum of 4 teams.

Associations are organizations that sponsor and administer one or more teams. They raise money, buy equipment, recruit coaches, secure fields, etc. Each Association should have a member called the Overball Commissioner who oversees the association.

Associations are characterized by specific geographical coverage. They often adopt neighborhood, city, county, or state names. If there are no associations, a League is considered intramural.

A team is the universal, basic unit of organization. At minimum, a teams consists of a group of participants organized under the direction of a coaching staff. Each team must consist of a minimum of 10 players and 1, who can also be a player.

A Division may be formed as a subdivision of a League, such as “Northwest Division” or “Southern Averia Division.”

Backfield

  • Defender – the person closest to the defended shade.
  • Back – usually a left and a right back will remain forward of the defender to help defend their shade.
  • Roamer – usually a roamer is a non-standard position, and a forward will be replaced to allow for a more defense-heavy formation. The roamer assists is like a center between the midfield and the backfield.

Midfield

  • Center – the center is usually the team captain, and acts as the team’s nucleus.
  • Midrider – a left and right midrider flank the center in the midfield.

Frontfield

  • Forward – a left and right forward will play ahead of the center.
  • Breaker – a left and right breaker play farthest forward.

Other

  • Trader – Optional like the roamer, a trader is a player who can relieve other players in any position.

Section 2: Players

The minimum age for participation in any regulation game is 18. There is no maximum age limit.

There are no minimum or maximum weight requirements.

MINIMUM ROSTER SIZE

No less than ten 10 players may form a team. Each team must also have at least 1 coach on staff. The coach may also be listed as a player. If you start a game with 10 players, you may finish the game with no less than 8 players.

MAXIMUM ROSTER SIZE

Not more than 24 players shall be certified onto a team roster. There is no limit to the size of coaching staff, to include medics, assistant coaches, etc.

Each player shall wear a number between 1 and 99. Numbers “0” and “00” are illegal and should not be worn. No duplicate squad numbers are permitted. Numbers are not limited in scope to player positions; any position can wear any number.

A free substitution rule is always in effect. At any time, players may exit the field. A substitute player only enter the field during game play as long as not more than 10 players are on the field at any given time (except during clock stoppages).

A player is ineligible to play under the following conditions:

  • Player is bleeding excessively.
  • Player is deemed too injured to safely continue playing by an official.
  • Player is under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
  • Player is under suspension.
  • Player has been ejected.
  • Player is underage.
  • Player is noticeably ill or has a known communicable disease.
  • Player causes the team to exceed the maximum number of players allowed on the roster.
  • Player is attempting to use a suspended or ejected squad number.

Section 3: Staff

There shall be at least 1 coach present during every match. That coach may also serve as a player. There is no limit to the number of additional coaches, assistant coaches, etc. (with the exception of apprentice coaches; see below). All coaching staff must be a minimum of 18 years old. A minor may serve as apprentice coach so long as a parental release form has been signed. A team may have no more than 2 apprentice coaches.

A team may have any number of non-coach and non-player staff, to include but not limited to assistants, equipment managers, medical personnel, athletic trainers, etc. Personnel under the age of 18 may serve as staff members provided a parental release form has been signed.

Section 4: Field

Field size shall be 100 yards in length and lines clearly marked at every 10 yards to serve as spills, to include an endzone area that serves as the shades.

Field surface must be either wholly natural (grass) or wholly artificial (turf). There is no rule on surface color so long as markings are clear and distinct.

The home team is responsible for securing the field and the referees. All fields must be marked in accordance with American football standards (high school, college, etc.).

The sideline area is reserved for players, coaches, and authorized team personnel only. This is to keep the area clear for medical personnel and to prevent injury to non-essential persons. The Home Team determines which sidelines each team will occupy.

  • Spill – The section between each 10-yard line.
  • Shade – The endzone or goal area.
  • Backfield – The area between the 50-yard line and the shade a team is defending.
  • Frontfield – The area between the 50-yard line and the opposing team’s shade.
  • Center Pip – The spot on the field at the 50-yard line, center field.
  • Back Pip – The spot on the field at the 15-yard line, center field.
  • Sideline – The area beyond the boundary on either side of the field.
  • Bounds – The outer boundary, to include the sideline marker and the back edge of the shade.

Section 5: Equipment

All game balls must be spherical and made of suitable material. Balls must be of a circumference of between 70 cm (28 ins) and 68 cm (27 ins). Typically, regulation soccer balls are used. Each team is required to have at least 2 game balls in rotation.

If the game ball becomes defective, play is stopped and restarted by dropping the replacement ball where the original ball became defective. If the ball becomes defective at a kick-off or penalty kick the kick is retaken with the replacement ball. The ball may not be changed during the match without the referee’s permission.

Each team is responsible for bringing their own game balls. If a team does not have any balls, they must forfeit the game unless, in a show of good sportsmanship, the opposing team provides a replacement.

The following are the rules regarding items that are allowed or disallowed to be worn by all players. Items in red are required.

  • Jersey – Each team is required to have a home (team colors) and away (white) uniform set. Jerseys are only required to display player squad number on each side. Team names, logos, association logos, patches, sponsor logos, and player name are all optional. All team members must wear the same color jersey. Jerseys can be short or long-sleeved. Players are not required to match sleeves.
  • Shorts
  • Footwear – Sneakers with molded rubber cleats (soccer) or detachable rubber or plastic cleats (football) are permitted. No metal cleats are permitted. Cleats may not exceed 1/2” in length.
  • Socks
  • Shin Guards
  • Athletic Cup (optional)
  • Eyeglasses – When worn, shall be of athletically-approved construction with non-shattering glass or contact lenses.
  • Jewelry – Jewelry of any type is no permitted, except for religious or medical medallions, which must be covered by the jersey.
  • Additional Attire – additional attire or padding may be worn (mouthpiece), so long as it will not impose upon other players (attire that can injure another player is prohibited, for example).
  • Hair – Hair may be worn in any manner, but may not obscure the number on the jersey. Any other markings on the jersey do not fall within these guidelines.
  • Fit – Ill-fitting attire, depending on how distracting it is, may result in a referee removing a player from play until the issue is resolved.

Coaches may raise objection with a referee regarding a potential attire or equipment infraction, and the referee shall make any determinations regarding attire and equipment.

All players on a team must wear the same colors. Both teams must wear colors that distinguish themselves from one another and the officials. Each team must have a home set and an away set (white). In a non-regulation game, teams may forego away uniforms if the colors of each team are distinctive.

Player squad numbers shall be clearly marked on both front and back of the jersey, and should be visible and distinct from half the distance of the field of play.

Coaches and non-playing staff may utilize communications equipment such as headphones, walkie-talkies, cellular phones, tablets, etc. Players may not wear any communications equipment during game play.

A player who loses a required item during game play, such as a shoe or shin guard, must replace it as quickly as possible. Game play will not stop to accommodate this.

Coaches and other authorized sideline personnel may utilize equipment such as flags (not red or yellow) to communicate with players on-field. They may not use anything that relies on sound or lights. If there is a question regarding the legality of any item, the head referee has final authority.

Section 6: Time

Each game is to be comprised of three equally-timed periods called tries. A game shall not be less than 60 minutes or longer than 90 minutes in play length (does not include intermissions and clock stoppages).

Each team shall be allocated at least 2 minutes but not to exceed 5 minutes intermission between tries.

The head referee shall determine who keeps the time if the field is not equipped with a scoreboard timing device. Head referee has ultimate authority of time-keeping, and can make adjustments as required.

There are no timeouts in overball.

INJURIES

The play clock shall stop if an injury occurs, and shall remain stopped until the injured player can be cleared from the field of play. Once the referee determines the field is clear, each team has 40 seconds to transition and get set or incur a delay penalty.

PENALTIES

The play clock shall stop in the event of an infraction. Once the referee delivers the penalty, each team has 40 seconds to transition and get set or incur a delay penalty.

GOALS, BACKSTOPS, AND HALF BACKSTOPS

The play clock shall stop in the event of a goal, backstop, or half backstop. Each team will have 120 seconds to transition and get set or incur a delay penalty.

Section 7: Scoring

POINT ACCUMULATION

The team with the most goals at the end of the game play time is the winner. There are no tie-breakers. Should both teams result in an equal number of points, a draw is declared.

MERCY RULE

If a team accumulates 9 goals before the game play time is up, that team is declared the winner.

A goal is made when a player makes a legal catch inside the opposing shade. At least one body part must be in contact with the field of play prior to going out of bounds of the shade. A player must have at least one hand or one foot inside the shade when receiving the ball in order to count as a goal. A player cannot run into the shade with the ball (see illegal forward motion).

A player may gain possession of a grounded ball inside the target shade off a penalty kick as long as the ball did not come into contact with any other players after the kick was made. This results in a goal.

A backstop happens when a player gains control of the ball inside the driving side’s defending shade. The player must gain positive control of the ball in any means possible (catch or pounce). This is the only time a player can “handle” the ball while grounded.

If a player in possession of the ball is tackled in their own shade, this results in a half backstop. No goal is scored. The team must kick off.

  • A goal is worth 1 point.
  • A backstop is worth 1 point.

Section 8: Game Play

Prior to the start of each match, each team shall submit 3 players to witness the coin toss. The referee shall present the coin and show both sides, clearly indicating to each team’s representatives which is heads and which is tails. Visiting team makes the call, and must call it in the air. The coin must land on the ground.

Winner of the coin toss determines which team makes the opening kick off and picks their starting side. The other team will make the kick off to start the 3rd try.

Because there are three periods (tries), which result in an uneven number, each team will not get to defend each shade an equal number of times. They end up defending one shade twice and the opposite shade only once. Determining who plays what side, in an effort to keep things fair, is the result of the opening game coin toss.

The winner of the coin toss gets to pick their side for the opening try, which means their choice also determines their side for the 3rd Try (because teams take the opposite side from the opening try). This leaves the 2nd Try, and choice goes to the team that lost the coin toss.

  • 1st Try: winner of the coin toss picks sides.
  • 2nd Try: loser of the coin toss picks sides.
  • 3rd Try: teams take opposite sides from what they had in the 1st Try.

Kick offs occur at the start of the 1st and 3rd tries, following a half backstop, and after a team scores a goal. Kick offs are made from the ground or from a drop-kick from the hands, and must be done at or before the 15-yard line (back pip). If a player misses a drop-kick and the ball becomes grounded, the kick off must be done from the ground.

The 2nd try does not begin with a kickoff, but rather a pip-off. The ball is placed on the ground at the center pip and no players from either team may occupy that shade until the whistle is blown (and clock starts). From there, the ball is in play and regular rules apply.

A pip-off will also occur in the event that both teams incur off-setting penalties simultaneously. The pip off will take place from the center of the spill in which the ball is currently located.

  • At the start of each try, each team must have 5 players in the backfield and 5 players in the frontfield.
  • Once play starts, each team must have at all times at least 3 players in front and back fields.
  • No more than 3 players from a team may occupy the same spill at any given time.
  • No more than 10 players from a team may occupy the field at any given time while the play clock is running.

Infractions: Illegal Formation

The ball may only move beyond a spill if it is in the air, and must be initiated from a handled ball (not a grounded ball). If a ball becomes grounded (touches the ground), it may only be kicked (soccer style) within the spill or backwards (except during kick-offs and penalty kicks). The ball may be only be thrown, popped, drop-kicked, tossed, or bumped forwards in the air to another player to move forward out of its current spill.

Players may not run with the ball beyond the current spill, but they can run backwards.

Infraction: Illegal Forward Motion

A ball becomes grounded when it contacts the ground. At that point, players may only kick the ball within the spill or backwards. To regain handling possession of the ball, a player must kick the ball from the ground to another player, who can then catch it and resume legal forward motion.

Infraction: Illegal Forward Motion

A player may not dive onto a ball, such as to prevent access to it by opposing players.

Infraction: Illegal Possession

GROUND RESET

During a ground reset, the ball is placed mid-spill and no opposing team players may occupy that spill until the ball leaves it (buffering).

IN-HAND RESET

During an in-hand reset, everything is the same as with a ground reset except the ball begins play in possession.

MAXIMUM PENALTY RESET DISTANCE

A penalty reset may proceed only to the final spill prior to the shade. A reset cannot move the ball into the forward shade for the possessing team, however, a reset can occur backwards into a defending shade, resulting in a backstop.

A ball is considered out of bounds when it passes beyond the field of play, as delineated by the boundary lines, or when any part of a player in handling possession of the ball makes contact with the ground beyond the boundary.

The ball resumes play in the other side’s possession from its location upon exiting the field (whichever team last made contact with the ball gives up possession). A player must drop-kick or pass the ball from the sidelines back into play, but this kick can only travel backwards.

Infraction: Out of Bounds

If a player is tackled while in possession of the ball, the ball changes possession from the location of the current spill. The ball is stopped and reset with a buffer. The clock does not stop. The International Overball League recommends rugby style tackling.

For a tackle to occur, the ball-carrier is held and brought to ground by one or more opponents. Being brought to ground means that the ball-carrier is lying, sitting or has at least one knee on the ground or on another player who is on the ground. Being held means that a tackler must continue holding the ball-carrier until the ball-carrier is on the ground.

Tackled players must immediately:
Make the ball available so that play can continue by releasing, passing or pushing the ball in any direction except forward. Move away from the ball or get up.

  • A player may make contact with the ground and resume a standing position provided that they were not contacted by an opposing player while on the ground.
  • A player in possession of the ball may not intentionally ground the ball to avoid a tackle. Infraction: Intentional Grounding
  • A player may not use the head while making a tackle. Infraction: Slicing
  • Tripping with any part of the leg is illegal. Infraction: Sweeping
  • A player may not tackle any player who is not in possession of the ball. Infraction: Personal Foul

If a ball comes loose during a tackle and the whistle is not blown, the ball is grounded and still in play.

If a ball handler is forced forward beyond the spill as a result of being tackled, no illegal forward motion infraction occurs and possession takes place from the forward-most spill of the tackled player.

Players may block opposing players so long as they do not make illegal contact and the blocked player can clearly view the blocker during the move. A player may only be blocked if they are clearly in motion towards a player in possession of the ball to make a tackle stop attempt and are in within 1 spill of the ball’s current spill. A player may not wrap the hands during a block.

Infraction: Illegal Block

A ball in possession may be stripped by an opposing player, upon which regular motion and grounded ball rules apply.

A player may slide along the ground to make a kick. Doing so can sometimes result in contact of the soul with another player. This is a kicking infraction, unless the contact occurs during a slide. For a slide to be legal, the hips must be in contact with the ground.

Infraction: Kicking

Section 9: Infractions

A deception call occurs if a player attempts to deceive an official, such as by wearing another player’s jersey (to circumvent a suspension or ejection, for example), faking an injury to distract a referee, etc.

In minor cases, the resulting penalty is a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team and the player is issued a warning. In major cases (as in jersey swapping), the team shall forfeit the match.

If a team’s players do not get reset during a transition period following a clock stoppage, a delay of game infraction occurs. This results in a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team.

In the event of a delay following a goal, backstop, or half backstop, kick-off team will move forward one spill and the kick-off will take place there. Celebration following one of these events is permissible so long as it is not excessive so as to cause the aforementioned delay.

A player cannot grab onto another player’s jersey. A player may also not wrap an opposing player outside of a tackle or otherwise impede maneuver of a player outside of a legal block. The resulting penalty is a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team.

Players may block opposing players so long as the blocked player can clearly view the blocker during the move. The resulting penalty for an illegal block is an in-hand reset back one spill for the penalized team and the player is issued a warning.

A player cannot contact the face of another player with the hands. The resulting penalty is a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team. If contact is perceived as intentional, offending player is issued a warning.

Should at any time during game play a team have less than 3 players in the front or backfield, an illegal formation call (off-sides) will be made. This results in a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team.

Should at any time during game play a team have more than 3 players occupying the same spill, an illegal formation call (breaching) will be made. This results in a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team.

Should at any time during game play a team have more than 10 players on the field, an illegal formation call will be made. This results in a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team.

If a player breaches a spill during a buffer, an illegal formation call (breaching) will be made. This results in a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team.

If a goal is scored during an illegal formation, and play was not stopped, the goal is recanted and a penalty kick is issued to the defending team from their own back pip.

If there is an illegal formation during kick off, this results in a ground reset back one spill for the penalized team. The kick off will be redone from the new position.

A grounded ball may not be kicked or propelled forward beyond the boundary of its current spill.

A player with handling possession of the ball may not travel beyond the boundary of the current spill; this occurs when any part of the ball handler’s body touches the ground forward of the current spill. Should this happen as the result of being tackled, no infraction is made and possession takes place from the forward-most spill of the tackled player.

The resulting penalty for illegal forward motion is a ground reset from the spill in which the infraction occurred and a change of possession.

A player may not dive on a ball and prevent access to it.

A player may not handle a grounded ball with the hands except under the following conditions:

  • when inside one’s own defending shade, the ball may be picked up
  • when attempting a half backstop in an opposing team’s shade
  • when attempting a goal off a penalty kick (see penalty kicks)

The resulting penalty is a ground reset from the spill in which the infraction occurred and a change of possession. If the infraction occurs by a player inside the opposing team’s shade, there will be a ground reset and change of possession at the back pip.

A player in possession of the ball may not intentionally ground the ball to avoid a tackle. This results in a ground reset and a change in possession from the spill in which the infraction occurred.

A player cannot force another player out of the way to gain access to a ball in play. The resulting penalty is a ground reset in the spill at the spot of the infraction and possession goes to the other team.

A player cannot contact another player with the soul of their feet except in instances where a player goes down and gets stepped on during normal game play. This results in an in-hand reset back one spill for the penalized team and the player is issued a warning.

Players can contact the ball with the souls of the feet, provided they do not contact another player in that manner while doing so, except in the case of a slide, which is when a player slides along the ground to make the kick. For a slide to be legal, the hips must be in contact with the ground.

A ball is considered out of bounds when it passes beyond the field of play, as delineated by the boundary lines, or when any part of a player in possession of the ball makes contact with the ground beyond the boundary.

The ball resumes play in the other side’s possession from its location upon exiting the field (whichever team last made contact with the ball gives up possession).

A player must drop-kick or pass the ball from the sidelines back into play, but the ball can only travel backwards.

A player cannot tackle, slam, kick, punch, bite, spit on or at, etc. another player except by reasonable accident when actively trying to make a move on the ball. A player may also not intentionally throw or kick the ball at an opposing player with the intent to harm them. This will result in a warning and a penalty kick will be awarded from the spill in which the infraction occurred and the player will be issued a warning.

A player may not use the head while making a tackle. This results in an in-hand reset back one spill for the penalized team and the player is issued a warning.

Tripping with any part of the leg is illegal, except by accident while making a legal move on the ball. This results in an in-hand reset back one spill for the penalized team and the player is issued a warning.

Any non-player who enters the field during game play will be considered an extra players, and an illegal formation infraction will occur. This includes coaches and other staff, spectators, etc.

Any player who engages in fighting either before or during the game will be ejected from the current game and the one following, and will incur a fine (see ejection).

A penalty kick will be awarded in the event of a personal foul infraction. There will be a ground reset in the spill in which the infraction occurred. The ball may be kicked from the ground in any direction, including forward beyond the spill.

A penalty kick is awarded to a defending team in the event that a goal is scored in their home shade during an illegal formation. There will be a ground reset and the kick is taken from their own back pip.

A teammate of the penalty kicker may gain possession of a grounded ball inside the target shade off a penalty kick as long as the ball did not come into contact with any other players after the kick was made. This results in a goal.

Penalty kicks are the only time, apart from kick-offs, where a ground kick may not cause an illegal forward motion infraction.

A player will be issued a warning for each illegal contact infraction. If a player accumulates 3 warnings in a game, they are suspended from play for 15 minutes. If a player accumulates 3 personal foul warnings, they are ejected for the rest of the game (see ejection).

Players ejected from the game will also forfeit their next game. If a coach is ejected during a game, and is the only coach on staff, another player may act as interim coach. The coach will also forfeit the following game.

Players may be ejected from a game under the following conditions:

  • they accumulate 3 personal foul infractions in a game
  • fighting
  • illegal referee contact
  • arguing with a referee
  • any other conduct which a referee shall deem unsportsmanlike or ejection-worthy

Should both teams incur penalties which offset, there will be a ground reset in the spill at the last position of the ball and both teams will buffer the spill for a pip off.

Physical Contact

Any player, coach, staff, or spectator who makes physical contact of an aggressive nature (strike, push, etc.) will be subject to suspension or ejection from the game, may be subject to a fine, or permanently banned from League activities.

Verbal Contact

Any player, coach, staff, or spectator who makes verbal contact of an aggressive nature will be subject to suspension or ejection from the game, may be subject to a fine, or permanently banned from League activities.

Section 10: Referees

Each match is controlled by a head referee who has full authority to enforce the rules of the game in connection with the match. Additional referees defer to the authority of the head official.

Decisions will be made to the best of the referee’s ability according to the rules and the ‘spirit of the game’ and will be based on the opinion of the referee who has the discretion to take appropriate action within the framework of the rules of the game. The decisions of the referee regarding facts connected with play, including whether or not a goal is scored and the result of the match, are final. The decisions of the referee, and all other match officials, must always be respected.

The referee may not reverse a decision on realizing that it is incorrect or on the advice of another match official if play has restarted, the next try has begun, or the match is terminated.

There must be at least 2 referees present at every game.

For a sanctioned or championship game, there must be at least 4 referees.

Should any referee become incapacitated so as to bring the number of officials below minimum, the game may be rescheduled. If a referee is incapacitated, play may continue under the supervision of the other match officials until the next stop.

The referee:

  • enforces the rules
  • controls the match in cooperation with the other match officials
  • may serve as timekeeper
  • stops and starts play in accordance with the rules
  • keeps a record of the match and provides the appropriate authorities with a match report, including information on disciplinary action and any other incidents that occurred before, during or after the match

Referees must have the following equipment:

  • Whistle
  • Watch or Stopwatch
  • Black and white striped top with either shorts or athletic bottoms
  • Red or yellow flag
  • Notebook (or other means of keeping a record of the match)

Other Equipment
Referees and other on-field match officials are prohibited from wearing jewelry or any other electronic equipment, including cameras.

Breaching – see illegal formation sections B and C.

Deception – One hand covers the eyes.

Delay – One hand extended above, the other taps the wrists (as though tapping a watch).

Holding – One hand across the chest making a grabbing motion with the clenched fist.

Illegal Block – Both hands make a pushing motion in front of the chest.

Illegal Face Contact – Hands are crossed and pulled toward the face.

Illegal Formation – A) Both hands extended overhead with all fingers splayed for too many players on the field. B) Three fingers in each hand splayed for too many players in a spill. C) Two fingers in each hand splayed for a buffer infraction. D) One finger in each hand extended for not enough players in the front or backfield.

Illegal Forward Motion – Both hands extended to the front, all fingers out.

Illegal Possession – Both hands make a cradling motion pulling towards the chest.

Intentional Grounding – One hand makes a throwing motion toward the ground.

Interference – Both hands make a pushing motion to the side.

Kicking – One hand held down at the side, pumped up and down with a fist.

Offsides – see illegal formation section D

Out of Bounds – Both hands pointing down toward the boundary marker at an angle.

Personal Foul – Both hands held overhead forming an X.

Slicing – Tap both hands on top of the head.

Sweeping – Wave one hand back and forth while pointing toward the ground.

Section 11: Flag Overball

Should teams decide to play a match that doesn’t involve tackling, flag rules will be used. All rules remain the same, with the exception of any rule involving tackling and blocking. Additional rules for flag-specific play will take effect.

  • A) Each player shall wear a flag belt.
  • B) Each belt shall have one flag.
  • C) Flags must all be the same size.
  • D) The flag shall hang from the center of the back.
  • F) Teams will wear different colored flags, but all players on a team must have the same color.
  • G) Flags cannot be obscured, such as by a jersey.
  • H) Flags must be in contrasting colors to the uniform.

A flag must be removed from the belt completely. This will count as a tackle.

Possession of the ball following a flag removal will resume from the location of the ball, not the flag.

Section 12: Appendices

  • Association – an organization that sponsors and administers one or more teams.
  • Back – a backfield player position that plays just forward of the defender.
  • Backfield – the area between a team’s home shade and the center pip.
  • Back Pip – the 15-yard pip near a team’s home shade.
  • Backstop – gaining control of a ball in the opposing team’s possession inside the opposing shade.
  • Blocking – Intervening an opposing player’s attempt to tackle.
  • Bounds – the outer perimeter of the field.
  • Breaker – a player position closest to the opponent’s shade.
  • Buffer – when players cannot enter a spill following a reset.
  • Center – a player position typically between the backs and midriders.
  • Center Pip – the center point on the field.
  • Cleating (infraction) – an infraction caused by contacting another player with the soul of the cleat.
  • Cleats – footwear.
  • Coach – a staff position that oversees training, management, strategies, etc. of the players.
  • Coin Toss – a pre-game procedure to determine opening kick-off and sides.
  • Concede – to quit a match and give the win to the opposing team.
  • Deception – an infraction involved an attempt to deceive an official.
  • Defender – the player position closest to the defended shade.
  • Delay – an infraction caused by delaying the game.
  • Discretion – judgment used by a referee or other match official when making a decision.
  • Division – a subdivision of a League.
  • Ejection – when a player or another person is kicked out of the game by the referee.
  • Field – the play area.
  • Flag – a red or yellow marker used by a referee to indicate that an infraction has occurred.
  • Formation – Specific positionings of players on the field.
  • Forward – a frontfield player position between the midriders and breakers.
  • Forward Motion – legal movement of the ball forward beyond a spill.
  • Frontfield – the area between the center pip and the opposing shade.
  • Goal – scoring a point by gaining possession of the ball in the opposing shade.
  • Ground Reset – referee placement of the ball on the ground following an infraction.
  • Grounded Ball – a ball that touches the ground and has not been repossessed.
  • Half Backstop – tackling an opposing player inside their own home shade.
  • Hand Signal – a visual cue of a referee to indicate the type of infraction.
  • Holding – an infraction caused by grabbing a jersey or wrapping an opposing player outside of a tackle.
  • Home Shade – the shade a team defends (behind your team).
  • Illegal Block – an infraction caused by blocking a player who could not see the block.
  • Illegal Face Contact – an infraction caused by contact of the hands to the face of an opposing player.
  • Illegal Formation – an infraction caused by any number of illegal placement of players on the field.
  • Illegal Forward Motion – an infraction caused by running or kicking a grounded ball forward beyond its current spill.
  • Illegal Possession – an infraction caused by diving on a ball outside of a shade.
  • In-hand Reset – referee placement of the ball in a player’s possession following an infraction.
  • Infraction – breaking a rule of the game.
  • Intentional Grounding – an infraction caused by throwing a ball away to avoid being tackled.
  • Interference – an infraction caused by forcing another player out of the way to gain access to a ball in play.
  • Jersey – a player’s uniform top.
  • Kick-off – a kick intended to relinquish possession of the ball to the opposing team.
  • League – a grouping of teams into a league for scheduling purposes.
  • Match – a game played between two teams.
  • Mercy Rule – when a team wins the game by accumulating 9 goals.
  • Midrider – a player position between the center and forwards.
  • Official – see referee.
  • Offsetting Penalties – when both teams incur penalties that cancel each other out.
  • Opposing Shade – the shade the opposing team defends (forward of your team).
  • Out of Bounds – when a ball or player in possession of the ball exits the field of play.
  • Overball – the game ball which the game is named after.
  • Penalty – the consequence for a rules infraction.
  • Penalty Kick – a free kick following an infraction where the ball may be kicked forward from the ground, which is otherwise illegal except during kick-offs.
  • Personal Foul – an infraction caused by unnecessary use of force against another player (biting, striking, etc.).
  • Pip – the center point of a spill (see back pip and center pip).
  • Pip-off – When the ball is placed at a pip and both teams buffer until play starts.
  • Player – a participant in the game.
  • Possession – controlling the ball by handling it.
  • Referee – an official who oversees and governs the match in accordance with the rules.
  • Reset – see in-hand reset and ground reset.
  • Roamer – a non-standard player position which replaces a forward to allow for a more defense-heavy formation.
  • Shade – the goal area on each end of the field.
  • Shin Guards – protective padding worn over the shins.
  • Shorts – a player’s uniform bottom.
  • Side Change – when teams switch sides at the beginning of a try.
  • Sideline – the side boundary of the field and the area just beyond.
  • Slicing – an infraction caused by a head tackle.
  • Slide – a move where a player slides across the ground to kick the ball.
  • Spill – the area between 10-yard marker lines.
  • Stripping – knocking or pulling a ball away from a player in possession.
  • Substitution – when a player exits the field and is relieved by a replacement player.
  • Suspension – a period of time following 3 warnings where a player is barred from playing.
  • Sweeping – an infraction caused by tripping another player.
  • Tackle – knocking or dragging a ball-carrying player to the ground to force a change in possession.
  • Team – the universal, basic unit of organization. At minimum, a teams consists of a group of players organized under the direction of a coaching staff.
  • Timekeeper – a person designated to keep time.
  • Trader – a player position that is usually reserved for a versatile player who can relieve any position.
  • Try – one of three game periods. Short for triad.
  • Warning – a verbal reprimand from a referee following a contact foul.
  • Whistle – device used by a referee to signal start or stop of play.

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